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McCune Articles from Windmilling

Here is a transcript of several McCune family histories from Windmilling: 101 Years of Swisher County History, published in 1978 by the Swisher County Historical Commission and Taylor Publishing. These pages include biographies on the McCunes.

Digital images of the original pages are here:

I had been having a heck of a time chasing my McCune ancestors to Indiana, repeatedly running into brick walls, when I finally found this entry on a website for the family of John S. T. McCune:


What I have meshes with some of his offspring quite nicely, with some slight deviations:

My ancestor, William Henry McCune was born in Terre Hall, Indiana on 22 September 1855. His wife Nancy "Nan" Adelia Boyles (not Boyd) had a sister named Mary Janetta "Etta" Boyles (again, not Boyd), who in turn was married to a Perry McCune. I've had no information showing a direct relationship between William and Perry, although I had suspected that they were in fact brothers.

My info also shows that Perry had a brother named John McCune (who does not seem to show up in this tree that I've found, although he could have conceivably been born after the group moved down to Cooke County, TX), and that their parents were named John Edgar and Elenor McCune. Both parents' first names match up with what the other tree has, but John's middle name is different.

Most of my info on these folks, aside from notes left by my mother, comes from a book entitled WINDMILLING: 101 Years of Swisher County History, published in 1978 by the Swisher County Historical Commission. Below, I've included transcripts of the relevant McCune family articles.

McCune family histories transcribed from the book WINDMILLING: 101 Years of Swisher County History, published in 1978 by the Swisher County Historical Commission and Taylor Publishing Company.

The first article transcribed here, located on pp 427-428, was written by my mother, Nina Ruth (Glenn) Martin, grand daughter of Cora Mae (McCune) Pace. Although I was only nine when she wrote it, I rather wish she had let me proofread it for punctuation and to break it into paragraphs. Nevertheless, it contains vital family information, and some precious memories from her childhood....

[pp 427-428]
[photo and caption] Aden, Winnie and Ruth Glenn


On January 29, 1876, William McCune and Nancy (Nan) Boyles were married in Finchford, Iowa. They had nine children, four of them died between the age eight months and eighteen years. The William McCunes moved to Tulia in 1908. William died May 21, 1909. Nan had one son and four daughters left. They were Floyd, Mae, Pearl, Ruth and Cora (McCune) Pace. Cora was married and had six children when they moved to Swisher Co. in 1907. Cora was my Grandmother. My parents were Aden L. and Winnie (Pace) Glenn. When I was about 3 1/2 we moved northwest of Happy. When Uncle Charlie Smith died, we moved to my grandparents place northeast of Tulia. We lived in a two-room house. Valley View School was five and one-half miles away. In 1934 I was in the second grade and I rode an old mare. In cold weather would be one stop at a neighbors and I would stop at Allene and Irene Kikers. The next year Daddy made a cart and Joy McDowell rode with me. We could cover up with a thick quilt to help keep us warm. The next year I rode a horse that would let children but not adults ride him. Mrs. Anderson and Mrs. Rose were my teachers. Mother raised chickens, we had an incubator and to hatch the chicks, the eggs had to be turned each day. A neighbor gave Mother a setting of duck eggs and when they hatched, the ducks went in the pond as soon as they found it and poor hen was on the bank having three fits. We made our lye soap in a cast iron pot and also boiled our clothes in it, after had carried water from the windmill and rubbed them on the rub-board after hanging them on the clothes line, we then ironed them with flat irons. Vegetables were grown and canned in jars and cans. Many cut Johnson grass for feed. Daddy tried to get wheat to grow, but someone had burned the wheat stubble and with the BLACK DUST STORMS it just wasn't possible. Finally he grew a little cotton. He made a puller by making a low trailer with the front out and fingers. This was pulled by horses. There were many good times visiting with neighbors, making ice cream. We found many arrowheads on the farm. We always attended church and Old Settlers and sometimes Harley Sadler Shows, rodeos were east of the Charlie Berry store where we sold our cream and eggs and there was fishing. We fished where Tule Lake is now located. Mother would sit all day and fish. Daddy wasn't so patient. We had a Model T Ford and Lee Young had a new car. He took us for a ride, 70 miles an hour was fast for me.

We moved to Sand Hill (near Floydada) in 1938 and Mother died in 1939. Daddy and I moved to Happy where I attended school in 1941 and 1942. There were many friends, they called me Ruthie. In September of 1942 I moved back to Floyd Co. and there I fell in love with a fine young man (Henry J. Martin). We have been married 34 years and have been blessed with five sons and five grandsons. Our oldest son, James married Jeanett Pogue of Tulia where they moved after a time. They have three sons born in Tulia -- he also designed the coin for the 75th celebration and did the Hornet on the Ozark Trail Monument. He does murals and many kinds of art. He is one of the many artists in my family. Great-grandmother McCune, Grandmother Pace, Winnie Glenn, I have done many types of art. James and two of his brothers, and many cousins, but most of all, we are proud of Carl J. Smith of Canyon. I remember Grandmother (McCune) Williams, she had very pretty furniture, how I would love to have a piece of it; but most of all the bookcase-desk or the organ. Van McCune died Jan. 27, 1933.

   By Mrs. Henry J. Martin

[Transcriber's notes: 

The Ozark Trail Monument, on which my oldest brother, James Antony Martin, was 
asked to paint a hornet, is an obelisk in downtown Tulia near the courthouse. 
The Ozark Trail Monuments were erected in the early 1920's in numerous communities.

Carl J. Smith Jr., who is also of McCune descent as outlined later in another 
article, is a well-established figure in Southwestern art. Some examples of his 
work can be see online at 

The mention near the end to "Grandmother (McCune) Williams" must be a reference 
to her great-grandmother Nancy "Nan" Adelia (Boyles) McCune, widow of William 
Henry McCune. As I learned in another of these articles, she remarried twice, the 
second time to a man named Ben Williams. And I have no earthly idea who the "Van 
McCune" in the final sentence might be, nor does my father. I have not run into 
that name or one like it anywhere else in my research. Alas, my mother passed 
away a little over a year ago, so she can't say...]

[page 428]
[photo and caption] Nan and Cora McCune.


Eva Pearl Foster has little memory of the town, Martha Oklahoma -- where she was born August 27, 1908 to W. (Dub) and Mattie (Campbell) Foster. Her father moved the family to Hale Center, Texas when she was one year old, in 1909. Living there about a year, they migrated to the Fairview community in Floydada where her father farmed seven years before buying a farm six miles east of Tulia here in Swisher County that Eva Pearl spent the remainder of her childhood.

While living in Floydada her Dad was Superintendent of Sunday School and Eva Pearl always rode to Sunday School in the buggy beside her daddy.

Everyone helped with church activities. Eva Pearl remembers one singing school which was taught by Jimmy Hale who later moved to Tulia and served as County Judge.

The Fosters were hard working industrious pioneers. The older girls were gone when Eva Pearl was small so she was her mother's "Girl Friday". One of the chores which she enjoyed was walking down to the road to pick up the mail. Their mailbox was so close to the Elkins residence that she would visit with her friend Eula before delivering the mail to her folks.

Being eight years old when the family moved to Swisher County, Eva Pearl started to school in Elkins. It wasn't far to go when the Foster children cut across pastures.

In October 1918 heavy rains flooded the creek. Her Daddy swam the creek horseback to pick up his children from school.

To Eva Pearl basketball made school worthwhile. She remembers playing with Nora McKinney, Irene and Inez Pittman, Eula and Dolly Elkins. They competed against Flynt, Salem, Union Hill and Love.

Neighborhood boys were her first boyfriends. Later she met a man who really mattered -- John McCune of Tulia. Nuptial vows were exchanged April 25, 1926 at the Methodist Parsonage in Kress, Texas with Tommy and Meda Foster as witnesses.

John Elmer McCune was the son of John Elmer and Etta (Alexander) McCune and was born June 3, 1902 west of Kress. His father was a blacksmith who also farmed and had property in Tulia. His mother died when he was thirteen.

Attending schools in Tulia, Mrs. Ray Jordon was one of his first teachers. After his marriage to Eva Pearl, the young couple made their home in Tulia where he worked for Birch Oil Company for several years before moving to the farm, first farming at their parents' farm for several years. Then they bought a farm -- the W.C. Cowan Sr. farm in the Love community. Selling that, they moved to the Elkins community and worked for Cephus Flowers for $1.75 a day. While here two of their children, Johnnie Pearl and Don L., started to school at Elkins. Their next move was to Valley View community where they were employed by Hugh Parker for about six years. Here their third child, Jerry, started to school.

Don L. also attended Tulia Schools.

Buying a farm at Union Hill, where they lived until John passed away of a heart attack.

Jerry and their youngest child, Zee, attended Happy Schools, graduating from there.

After John's death, Eva Pearl maintained her residence at the family farm until 1971 when she sold it to her son, Jerry, and moved to Plainview where she lives.

Johnnie Pearl was a special birthday present to her parents, John and Eva Pearl McCune, being born on her mother's birthday, August 27, 1927 in Tulia. She attended Elkins school for a while before moving with her family to the Valley View community where she attended school until her sophomore year when she transferred to Tulia Schools. Since there was no bus service available she boarded in town. The first year she stayed with her uncle and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Dwaine Foster, and two years with Mr. and Mrs. W.A. Graham.

Graduating in 1943, she worked at several jobs while living in Amarillo and Plainview. She is married to Guy Warren Knowles and lives at Grand Prairie, Texas.

The couple have two children, Linda and Guyla.

Don L. was born October 3, 1929 at Tulia and was living in the Elkins community when he became of school age.

A black shetland pony was a treasured gift from his parents when he was small. He and his sister, Johnnie Pearl spent many an enjoyable hour astride that little horse doing acrobatics. It was also their transportation to school.

Moving to Valley View with his parents he attended Valley View School until transferring to Tulia.

After completing his education, he followed in his father's footsteps and began farming, first farming with his father and later for himself. He is married to Sue Ann Kenney of Canyon. The couple has one daughter, Sandra, and a son, Steve.

Jerry, the son of John and Eva Pearl McCune was born May 1, 1933 in Tulia. He lived in the Elkins community a while before moving to Valley View, starting to school in this little community. His first teacher was Mrs. Mayrene Anderson. Transferring to Happy schools, he graduated in 1950 from Happy High School, playing football three years and was captain of his team. Happy had the winning district team all three years.

Marrying Sue Evans, daughter of Bill Evans, he too followed in his father's footsteps professionally. In 1971 he bought his father's farm in the Union Hill community and continues living there with his family in 1977.

Jerry and Sue have three children: Jerry Dwaine, John David, and Sharri Kay.

[Photo and caption which should actually accompany next article] Floyd S. McCune

He has won many trophies in photographic competition which he has enjoyed as a hobby for many years.

The fourth and youngest child of John and Eva Pearl (Foster) McCune was born February 2, 1939 and christened Zelma Zee.

She attended Happy Schools, graduating in 1957. Attending Wayland College one year, she married Shelby Baucum from Idalou. He is employed as minister of Education of the First Baptist Church in Plainview where the couple live in 1977.

Zee helps her husband with his work and is active in church work.

Two children were born to this union, Jeffrey -- 12 years old, and Julie Dawn, who is ten.

   By Mrs. Roy Montague

[Transcriber's notes:  I'm not certain if these McCunes were actually tied to the 
ones in my family, but I've included the transcript for completeness. The senior 
John McCune mentioned may be the brother of Perry McCune mentioned in later 
articles, who in turn is also possibly the brother of William Henry McCune, but 
I'm not certain.]

[page 428]


Floyd S. McCune was born near Gainesville, Texas in 1882. He married Minnie Cotton from Gainesville. Had a daughter named Iva Mae before moving to Tulia in 1910.

He was a blacksmith and did welding also. He invented several things that were helpful to the farmers. A hoist for lifting heavy equipment, which he put on his pick-up or truck so that he could go to the farms to repair the machinery that had broken down; and an arm to hold a file that moved along slowly to sharpen a saw that had dull teeth. He had the idea of a way to improve the work of the 'go-devil' and sold it to a man who wanted to get a patent on it.

He adopted a son, Walter Lee, and also raised their grandson, Max Wheeler.

He died at age 86 in 1968 having done much good in his community.

   By Ruth Smith

[Transcriber's notes: In this context, a "go-devil" likely refers to a railroad 
handcar, the hand-cranked platforms that railworkers would use to travel down the 

Floyd S. McCune was a son of William Henry McCune and Nancy Adelia (Boyles) 
McCune. The writer of this snippet was one of his sisters, Ruth (McCune) Smith, 
wife of Carl Smith Sr., and mother of the aforementioned Carl J. Smith, Jr.]

[pp 428-429]


As a child I never tired of hearing about how, when I was almost three years old, I arrived in Tulia, Texas, on a great black train that surely must have run that day for no other reason than to bring me to the wonderful, loving couple who became my parents; Ruth and None (None) McCune. In a few days I received my name, Dorothy Marie, having stubbornly resisted all of Mother's efforts to call me Mary Elizabeth.

Mother was Ruth Tomlinson McCune, the daughter of Mary Longacre Tomlinson and Walter S. Tomlinson who came to Tulia from Tennessee. Although Etta and Perry McCune had named Daddy Noah Edgar, everyone called him N.E. or None.

Mother told me that she first saw Daddy while he was in Tulia to visit his parents. He had just graduated from Pharmacy School and was working in Dallas. She said he had the most beautiful horse and buggy in town and was considered quite a 'catch'. He and Mother were married in Tulia when she was eighteen. They spent the first night of their honeymoon in the home of Uncle John McCune, a necessity since there was no train for Dallas until the next day.

When they later moved to Tulia, Daddy opened a drug store one block north of the courthouse on the west side of the street, north of the First National Bank. He not only had a pharmacy but a soda fountain and his bench for repairing watches. In the Fall of 1922, I entered upon this scene. Daddy sold McCune Drug Co. to a Mr. Shaw while I was still very young. McCune Jewelry and Watch Repairing came into existence.

My cousin, Mrs. Bill (Dorothy Nell Leonard) Williams and I spent a great deal of time with our aunt, Mrs. Miles (Mary Tomlinson) LaVelle at LaVelle's Dry Goods Store. We entertained Mrs. Lee (Lena) Ward by trying on the hats and corsets, constantly on the alert for the ominous sound of Uncle Miles LaVelle's clearing his throat, a noise Hubert Rutherford became quite adept at imitating, giving us some anxious moments.

My most beloved memories of my teenage years are of a special group of friends -- eight other girls and I, more sisters than friends -- who organized the first social club in Tulia High School. The nine members of our Sub-Deb Club were: Mozelle Smith Cox, Charlie Mae Northcutt Dixon, Kathryn Daniels Kizer, Martha Jordan Beyers, Virginia Rogers Evans, Lula Marjorie Conner Miller, Dorothy Nell Leonard Williams, Mary Rose Keim Spann and Dorothy Marie McCune Clower. "Happiness was" after-school cokes and candy at Scrap Crawford's Pharmacy and, in the evenings, our dates beginning and ending at the City Drug. Mrs. Bill Emmitt was always on hand to tell the boys when it was time to take us girls home.

I attended Texas Tech University in Lubbock 1937-40. In 1940 I deserted the halls of learning, marrying Bernie H. Clower, son of Mr. and Mrs. James L. Clower, Tulia.

Our first child, Don Michael, was born in 1941 and our daughter Diane was born in 1945.

Bernie began working with Daddy after we and our two children moved to Tulia in 1946. Almost a month to the day after our arrival, Daddy died of a heart attack. A very inexperienced Bernie was on his own, and in a few months, McCune Jewelry became Clower Jewelry.

Sometime in the 1950's LaVelle's Store was incorporated and Mother became one of the partners, continuing to work in the store until her retirement.

In 1954 I began teaching school. After graduating from West Texas State University in 1960, I taught in Tulia High School for several years.

Our son Don enlisted in the Air Force in 1959 but in 1961 a hunting accident ended what he had intended to be a career. After a year's treatment in Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C., he was given a medical retirement.

West Texas State was the college our daughter Diane chose. She was very happy to be chosen as one of the college twirlers.

I attended Nursing School, passing my State Boards in 1966. Even the 4:30 rising and the eighty mile drive to and from Amarillo each day never dimmed my enthusiasm.

Following many years of failing health, Mother suffered a fatal bout with pneumonia in 1967.

A wonderful change in our lives took place in 1969 when Bernie and I began the rearing of our second family with the advent of Deedra Joy.

In the Spring of 1975, Bernie and I had a "Going Out of Business" sale, after having been in business for twenty-nine years. Our building was in our family continuously for over thirty years.

Bernie, Deedra and I moved to Longview -- deep in the Piney Woods of East Texas and we love it but we dislike being so far from Don, Diane and our grandchildren.

Don has lived in El Monte, California, since 1967 and is a Supervisor with the Post Office in the City of Industry. He has two sons: Michael Don and Dean Mason. Diane Clower Mosley has two children: a daughter, Heather, and a son, DelRay. She and her husband live in Canyon, Texas.

Bernie is employed by Murray Jewelry Co. and is so happy that I believe he would work even if they didn't pay him!

    By Dorothy Marie McCune Clower

[Transcriber's notes:  Mary Janetta "Etta" (Boyles) McCune (Perry's wife) 
was the sister of Nancy "Nan" Adelia (Boyles) McCune, who in turn was wife of William 
Henry McCune. I suspect, but cannot prove, that William and Perry were brothers. 
Pairs of brothers marrying pairs of sisters was not uncommon in the past, 
resulting in their children being "double cousins".  More on Perry in the next 

[page 429]


The families of Perry and Mary Jenetta came from Iowa by covered wagon to Texas in 1876. It took eight weeks for them to make the trip to Cooke County, Texas. After their marriage they moved to Swisher County for a short time and then moved back to Cooke County. Finally they decided this should be home and returned to Swisher County before the 1900's.

Mary Jenetta was the daughter of N.S. and Elzina Boyles and Perry the son of John Edgar and Elenor McCune.

Their children were: Bertha Geneva, married J.B. Shows who was part owner of Cantrell and Shows. She died in 1946; Noah Edgar, married Ruth Tomlinson, operated the McCune Drug Store along with Walter Tomlinson and later operated a Radio Shop. He died in 1946; John Arthur who died in Cooke County as an infant; Sallie Irine who died in 1912 at the age of 24; William Earl, married Alice Herrod and farmed southeast of Tulia. He died in 1946; and Nellie Grace, married Carl Lee Hale. She died in 1960.

Mary Jenette, Granny Mack, as she was called by her grandchildren, keep a daily journal. The first one we have began on May 11, 1900 where she tells of their home burning. The first entry says "Last evening the children wanted to go to Mr. Holders to a candy pulling party. And at 10 p.m. our house was discovered to be on fire."

On the entries made the following days neighbors and friends came or sent the necessities, even a box of matches, for beginning again. Names mentioned include the Shorts, Stringers, Keck and Storks. A comment made was "as soon as Mrs. Keck heard of it, she hitched to the hack and come after some of us and some sewing to do." At the end of this year they had used 987 yards of cloth refurnishing their wardrobes. Other neighbors and friends mentioned in the early journals are Bright Bagley, Will Holder, Walter Ervin, Dave Reed, Bert Eliff and Will and Clara Ervin. She tells of holding the newborn daughter of Clara Ervin while it died.

She kept a list of how many pieces of clothes she made. In 1902 she reports that they spent for the year $1,230.00.

In January of 1915 she wrote: "I went to town today to pay my taxes. $54.76. We sure do have to pay for the privilege of living in the beautiful city of Tulia." Perry had passed away in 1910 so she had moved to town to live.

On November 29, 1916 she wrote: "Minnie (Mrs. Floyd McCune) phone me early that she was going to Plainview and wanted me to go. And I was very glad to get to go. We started about nine o'clock and got along fine until we struck a muddy lane about two miles from Kress. We stuck in the mud. A man and little boy came along in a car and tried to help us but couldn't. He went on to Kress and sent Gene Bass, the garage man, out to help us. We pushed and pulled and were beflattered with mud from head to foot. Gene Bass had to call a boy passing to help us. We rode back to Kress with Mr. Cates and Gene pulled Minnie's car back to town. We got dinner at the

[Photo and caption which should actually accompany next article] W.H. and 
Nancy Adelia McCune

hotel for 35 each and it tasted good. Mr. Raymond from Tulia was there in his Ford and brought us back to Tulia, so we didn't go to Plainview, but stopped at Kress. Had been wanting to visit that town and now we have done so."

On Dec. 6 they rode to local to Kress and drove the car on to Plainview. It cost them $19.00 to fix the car.

In 1946 within three months she and two of her children passed away. She was a blessing to all the grandchildren and those who knew her.

   By Mrs. Carl L. Hale, Jr. (Daphne)

[Transcriber's note: What I wouldn't give to get a peek at Grannie Mack's 
journals. Must get in touch with these folks...]

[pp 429-430]


In trying to write the story of my mother's parents, Will and Nan McCune, their only surviving child, Ruth McCune Smith, 84 years old of Canyon gave me this information about my grandparents.

William Henry McCune was born September 22, 1855 in Terre Haute, Ind. Nancy Adelia Boyles was born August 5 1860 in Black Hawk, Iowa. Both were Scotch-Irish. He was 21 and she was 16 when they married in Finchford, Iowa and moved to Cooke County, Texas where they farmed until Grandpa got sick.

Living in Tulia at that time was Grandma's mother, Elzina Catherine Boyles. She died Feb. 7, 1908 and is buried in Tulia Cemetery. My great grandmother Boyles lived in Tulia with her children, Perry and John McCune. Also living in Tulia was her brother, Perry McCune married to Grandma's sister, Janetta Boyles McCune and another brother, John McCune and his family. They urged Grandpa to move out here for his health.

In August 1908 Grandpa sold out his cows and farm in Cooke County, loaded his family in two covered wagons and made the nine day trip to Tulia. With them were their girls, my Mother, Hattie Mae 19 years old and Myra Ruth, 15 years old; their oldest daughter Cora and her husband, Boss Pace and their six children. Their other children Pearl and Floyd moved to Swisher later.

Grandpa rented a house, Mae and Ruth started to school while Grandpa bought farmland at Kress and Happy before moving his family to Lockney. He died in May, 1909. When his estate was settled, Grandma was left with a tidy sum of money. She returned to Tulia and built a large house at 222 NW 6th.

Mae and Ruth went to the Christian College in Lockney. Grandma would close her house during winter months and go to Mineral Wells but returned for the pleasant summers in Tulia -- the girls were at home those months.

She started painting with oils and painted on everything she found -- canvas, boards, cardboard. She enjoyed this hobby until her death. The following item was found in Aunt Ruth's papers: Nancy Adelia McCune was grandmother at age of 33. Had born 13 children at age of 36. Lost 8 of the 13 by age of 38. Was left a widow at age of 48. Married a man named Edward at age of 53 or 54. Divorced him at age 57. Married (Dad) Ben Williams at age of 60. Died at the age of 72.

The children of Grandpa and Grandma "Mack" who raised their families or lived in Swisher are: Floyd McCune -- Tulia blacksmith -- wife, Minnie, their children, Iva Mae and Walter lee. They also raised Iva Mae's son, Max Wheeler. Mae Young -- Kress -- husband Erwin Young, blacksmith, their children, Odetta, Lee, Delia, Vineta, Mack, Erma, Glenna, Floyd, Eddie and Teddie. Ruth Smith -- Kress -- husband Carl Smith -- farmer and Postmaster, their children: Margie, Jack,

[Photo and caption] Elzina Catherine Boyles and Mae McCune Young

Ardis, Alvin, Dot, Don, Evelyn, Foye, Carl J. and Charles. Pearl Lang -- Kress -- husband Roy Lang -- school janitor, married late in life after their first mates died.

Many of McCunes grandchildren, great grandchildren, and great-great grandchildren attended schools in Kress, Tulia and Happy. Even though Grandpa "Mack" didn't live long after coming to Tulia, he and Grandma "Mack" have shared in the history of the county and surrounding area.

    By Erma Young Webb

[Transcriber's notes: The rather contorted third paragraph describes how 
William Henry McCune's wife, Nancy Adelia Boyles, had a sister named Janetta Boyles, who 
in turn was married to Perry McCune, who had a brother named John McCune.  It is 
never explicitly stated, but I suspect that William, Perry, and John were all 

"Teddie" was married to Floyd Cash, who, I believe in the 1980's, was honored as 
a Kentucky Colonel.  Ted has since passed away, and Floyd has remarried.

Nathan Benjamin "Boss" Pace and his wife Cora Mae (McCune) Pace were the parents 
of Winnie Rebecca (Pace) Glenn, my maternal grandmother. My mother left 
handwritten notes indicating that she was born in Boss Pace's home. This Pace 
line is believed to descend from Richard Pace, an "Ancient Planter" of Colonial 
Jamestown, VA., who played a pivotal role in saving Jamestown from an Indian 
massacre, although I'm still working on verifying that link...]